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 Izh-Moskvitch 412 (Иж-Москвич 412)


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 Manufacturer МЗМА (MZMA, AZLK since 1968); Izhmash
 Model name Izh-Moskvitch 412 (Иж-Москвич 412)
 Years of production

1967 - 1977 (MZMA/AZLK)

1967 - 1999 (Izhmash)

 Body style  4 door sedan, 5 passengers
 Car layout 4 × 2, rear-wheel drive
 Engine UZAM-412. 4 cyl. 1.48 L, 75 hp.
 Transmission  4-speed manual
 Max speed 145 km/h
 Fuel tank capacity 46 L
 Fuel consumption 8.5-10 L / 100 km.
 Dimensions 4250x1550x1480 mm.
 Cargo capacity 430 kg.
 Curb weight 1045 kg.











The Moskvitch 412 (Moskvich 412, Москвич-412, M-412) is a small family car produced by Soviet/Russian manufacturer MZMA/AZLK in Moscow from 1967 to 1975, and by IZh in Izhevsk from 1967 to 1982 (also known as IZh- Moskvitch 412). It was a more powerful and prestigious version of the M-408 model, offering more features for a higher price.

The Moskvitch 412 derived from the Moskvitch 408, differing in more powerful 1.5 engine. The earliest engines for the M-412 were built in 1964. The Moskvitch-412 had a slanted (to a tilt of 20 degrees) inline-four engine with a block, head, and inlet manifold cast in aluminium alloy to keep the engine weight down, and a hemispherical combustion chamber.

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 Steel cylinder liners were replaceable to enable easy repair of the engine instead of having to replace it entirely. Since it was of an OHC design, it was taller than the OHV MZMA-408 engine it replaced, which is why it was mounted at a slant. The UZAM-412 had a capacity of 1,478 cc (90.2 cu in) c.c. and developed 75 horsepowers. Its more powerful version, the Moskvitch-412-2V, had 100 h.p. and was installed on sports cars. The 1,478 cc (90.2 cu in) UZAM-412 engine, with a light alloy block, was designed by Igor I. Okunev. According to some observers, it bore some similarities to the contemporary BMW M 115 motor used in the BMW 1500 model, although in other ways they are different from each other.

The similarity between the two engines is purely superficial and limited only to the tilt angle of the cylinder block and between the valves and the gear of the overhead camshaft. The gearbox inherited from the M-408 was improved, with the gearbox ratios being revised to make better use of the increased power output. Until 1969, M412 had the gear lever on the steering column, just like M-408. From 1969 on, M-412 had the gear lever mounted on the floor. M-408 had the gear level mounted on the floor since 1973.

In 1969, both the M-412 and the related M-408 had their bodies redesigned. These were notable for being the first Moskvitch models to feature rectangular headlights and horizontal rear lights, which passed on to the 2138/2140 in 1976, replacing round headlights (two on ordinary models, four mainly on export models) and vertical rear lights. Only rear triangular turn signals remained on vestigial tailfins. Until then, the M-412 profited from heightened tailfins and tanned headlight lamps on export models.

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Another notable (but not unique, as it was used in other Russian cars at the time) feature were the so-called side signals, mounted on the C-pillars on some vehicles and similar to the American "opera lights". The designers "had paid real attention to passive safety", the car was crash-tested, met the standards of safety adopted by the UNECE, and received an international safety certificate as a result of almost five months of tests in France.

It was upgraded with dual-circuit braking system with power assistance (servo), disc brakes on the front wheels, reinforced car-body structure, and passive safety features such as soft grip steering wheel cover, soft interior parts, seat belts, and padded dashboard. It was the first Moskvitch to pass safety-features tests in France, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Sweden in 1970–71, and in Western Germany in 1972.The modernized model, both for export and domestic market, received a factory code M-412IE (IE for "export rendition"), to mark, that it fulfils new safety requirements.

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IZh- Moskvitch 412 practically similar to M-412, with slight changes in the frontal grille, most notably retaining twin round headlights. The car was still marketed as Moskvich 412 and had such name on a rear hood, while IZh- Moskvitch 412 was a factory designation. After a facelift in 1982 it received a black grille with indicators on outer sides of headlights, and hollow door handles (factory code IZh-412-028), and remained in production until 1997.

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)




© Tbilisi Automuseum. 2019


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