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"Chaika" GAZ-14 ("Чайка" ГАЗ-14)



 Manufacturer  GAZ (Gorky Automobile Plant)
 Model name

"Chaika" GAZ-14 ("Чайка" ГАЗ-14)

 Years of production 1977 - 1988
 Body style 4 door long wheelbase sedan, limusine (7 passenger), phaeton (6 passenger)
 Body style

4 × 2, rear-wheel drive


 GAZ-14 (ZMZ-4), 8 cyl. 5.53 L. 220 hp.

 Transmission 3-speed automatic
 Max speed  175 km/h.
 Fuel tank capacity 100 L
 Fuel consumption  14-29 L / 100 km.
 Dimensions 6114x2020x1525 mm.
 Cargo capacity 600 kg.
 Curb weight 2605 kg.













The GAZ-14 is an automobile manufactured by the Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (GAZ, Gorky Automobile Plant) from 1977 to 1988. Chaika production consisted of two generations, the GAZ-13 and the GAZ-14. The GAZ-13, debuted in 1958 and exhibited internationally at the Brussels motor show. It was produced from 1959 to 1981, with a total of 3,179 built.

The GAZ-13 was greatly inspired by the Packard Patrician and Packard Caribbean. However, despite the similarities, the Soviet car wasn’t copy of the American ones.

The vintage 1950s-style M13 was succeeded by the more modern Chaika M14 introduced in 1977 (although production of both versions overlapped by several years). Although visually modern and fitted with the latest electronic luxury features, the M14 was in fact built around the drivetrain and undercarriage of the older model.

gaz14 2a

The M14 engine was a modernized 5,526 cc (337.2 cu in) and achieved 220 hp SAE gross. A seven-seater, with special soundproofing, it measured 611 cm (241 in) long overall and weighed in at 2,600 kg (5,732 lb). A four-door convertible, the 14-05, appeared in 1982.phaeton2

An ordinary Soviet citizen couldn’t purchase a Chaika - it was never in open sale. This was a luxury car for middle-level officials. Still, common people had a chance to see how the famous vehicle looked on the inside.


Retired Chaika cars were given to register offices and were very popular among newlyweds. Besides politicians, famous people (artists, writers, athletes, etc) were also often awarded a Chaika.


A Chaika belonging to the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Pimen, was decorated by Pierre Cardin himself. He visited Moscow in 1979 for a fashion exhibition and met the Patriarch as well. Amazed by Pimen’s car, Cardin offered to design the car’s saloon in his own unique, ice-cream colored way.

The Chaika became the official car of Soviet ambassadors abroad. Moreover, many foreign diplomats in Moscow also used this car, despite usually preferring to ride American and European vehicles.

Unveiled in 1977, the GAZ-14 had a cabriolet version (GAZ-14-05), which was actively used during the Victory parades on Red Square


One of the Chaika cars, known as “Black Doctor,” was used as an ambulance vehicle for the Kremlin elite and members of their families. However, at first glance, this black car was more like a hearse.

raf 3920

In 1988, during Mikhail Gorbachev’s “fighting privileges” campaign, Soviet officials were ordered to ditch the Chaika for the less prestigious Volga instead. Gorbachev’s idea was to show that the Soviet political elite would no longer enjoy luxury items, but would become closer to the common people.


The “privilege fighters” went too far: not only was production of the GAZ-14 stopped, but all technical documentation and equipment were destroyed. As a result, the idea to restore production of the Chaika in the 1990s completely failed.

gaz14 3

The Chaika M14 remained in production from 14 October 1977 to 1988. Around a hundred M14s were built each year, with total production (including units assembled in 1989 from spare parts) reaching 1,114.

 (From and Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


© Tbilisi Automuseum. 2019


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